Monday, 6 April 2020

TNPSC STUDY MATERIAL -ENGLISH MEDIUM - BIOLOGY - 3

PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION

- In the age-group of 1-5 years. Kwashiorkar

- Due to the deficiency of protein.

- When mother stops breast feeding. - anaemia

- In infants under 1 year of age. Marasmus

- Deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. - between 6 months and 3 years.

MINERALS

- Apart from organic chemicals such as C, H, O, N human body needs inorganic chemical elements, called minerals, for a wide range of functions. These elements are present in the form of ions.

- Minerals help maintain the volume of water necessary to life processes in the body.

- Macroelements (more than 1 gm)

- Microelements (less than 1 gm)

- Deficiency of any of these leads to metabolic disorders.

VITAMINS

- Discovered by Funk

- Do not provide energy but help in different physiological processes.

- Vitamins are of 2 types:

- Water soluble, Fat Soluble

IMPORTANT VITAMINS REQUIRED IN HUMAN BEINGS

B1 (Thiamine) – Beri-beri

B2 or G (Riboflavin) – Cheilosis

B3 or PP3 (Nicotinic acid or Niacin) – Pellagra

B6 (Pyridoxine) – Dermatitis, anaemia

B5 (Pantothenic acid) – Dermatitis Vit.H (Biotin) – Folic aic group – Megaloblasticanaemia (low Hb content)

B12 (Cyanocobalamine) – Pernicious anaemia Vit. C (Ascorbic acid) – Scurvy

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