Monday, 6 April 2020

TNPSC STUDY MATERIAL -ENGLISH MEDIUM - BIOLOGY - 2

FATS

 Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates

  Acts as the reserve food material because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue. Stored fat is used as fuel when glucose is not available.

 An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.

 Our diet should contain less saturated fats. Excess of saturated fats increases the blood cholesterol level and may cause arteriosclerosis

 Hydrogenation: Process by which unsaturated fatty acids are converted into saturated fatty acids by the addition of hydrogen.

  Requirement : 50 gms daily.

Note: - In whales and seals, the fat of the skin forms a thick layer called blubber.

PROTEINS
- Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulphur.

- Important for growth and repair of the body (75% of our body is proteins only)

- Made up of amino acids. - Proteins are first broken into amino acids and then digested.

- As Enzymes:As catalyst in digestion (Eg – Pepsin, Trypsin)

- As a Hormone:To regulate body functions - In transport of different substances: (Eg- Haemoglobin- Transports O2 in blood, Myoglobin – Stores O2 in muscles)

- As contractile proteins for contraction in muscles: (Eg Actin and Myosin)

- Structural proteins: (Eg- Collagen Component of connective tissue, cartilage Keratin- Component of skin)

- Protective proteins:(Eg. Gamma globulins)

- Visual proteins: Rhodopsin and Iodopsin of rods and cones are proteins only. (Rods and Cones are the cells which are present in Retina of the eye).

- About 70-100 gms of proteins are daily needed.

- sources: Groundnuts, soyabean, pulses, lean meat, fish, eggs, milk, etc. 

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