Monday, 6 April 2020

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - -ENGLISH MEDIUM - BIOLOGY - 8

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

ENDOCRINE GLANDS 

Hypothalamus 
- part of fore-brain, secretes neurohormones, which effect the release of hormones from pituitary. 
- Acts as the thermostat.

PITUITARY GLAND 
- smallest endocrine gland. 
- Somatotrophicharmone: Its hypersecretion leads to acromegaly in adults and gigantium in children. Its hyposecretion leads to dwarfness in children.
- Gonadotrophic harmone (GTH) : Stimulates the primary sex harmones 
- Lactogenic hormone: Initiates milk production in the pregnant females. 
- Thyrotrophic hormone: regulation of thyroid secretion.
- Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) 
- Diabetogenic or Metabolic Hormone: 
- Oxytocin or Pitocin: smooth muscle contractions, helps in the secretion of milk. 
- Vasopressin or ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone): Hypoactivity leads to Diabetes.

THYROID GLAND

- It is the largest endocrine gland located in the neck between the trachea and larynx. Controls BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) it is 1600 Kcal/day 

Secretes: 
- Thyroxine: Hypoactivity in children leads to cretinism. 
- A diet, poor in iodine which is insufficient for the synthesis of thyroxin, leads to simple goiter. 
- Its hyperactivity leads to increased metabolic activities 

- Thyrocalcitonin 
– controls the amount of calcium in the body. 

Hashimoto Disease:thyroid gland is destroyed. It is known as suicide of the thyroid. 

PARATHYROID GLAND 

- Secretes Parathormone, which is also known by the name of Collip’s Hormone. 
- It influences calcium and phosphorus metabolism (Ca level = 12 mg/100 ml of blood) 
- Removal of this gland leads to death due to tetany (cramps, tremors and convulsions in muscles) 
- Hyperactivity withdraws calcium from bones

SHARE THIS

Author:

Etiam at libero iaculis, mollis justo non, blandit augue. Vestibulum sit amet sodales est, a lacinia ex. Suspendisse vel enim sagittis, volutpat sem eget, condimentum sem.

0 Comments: