Tuesday, 7 April 2020


Parotid Glands
These are largest salivary glands.

 It is bilobed, right lobe being the larger and left lobe the smaller.
 Secretes Bile, which is yellowish in color.
 Bile helps in digestion in three ways.
 Liver is a gland which has got diverse functions.
 Digestion: With the help of bile (already discussed)
 Regulation of Blood Sugar: The liver separates the excess of sugar from the blood and stores it in its cells as glycogen (animal starch). This process is called Glycogenesis and is aided by pancreatic hormone insulin.
 During the days of food shortage, the stored glycogen is changed into glucose and added to the blood stream for distribution to the body.
 Formation of Glycogen from Noncarbohydrate sources: Excess of amino acids/ fats are also changed into glycogen. This process is called Glyconeogenesis.
 Their amino radical separating as ammonia and carbon chain changing into a keto acid. This process is known as Deamination.
 Excretion: Liver collects haemoglobinwhile keto acid takes part in metabolism.
 Blood clotting: liver produces heparin, prothrombin and fibrinogen.
 Formation of Red Blood Corpuscles: Liver produces RBCs in the embryo.
 Phagocytosis: Foreign matter, dead cells and bacteria are disposed off in the liver.
 Synthesis of Vitamin A
 Storage: Besides glycogen liver stores (a) lipids such as fats fatty acids and cholesterol


 Endocrine –α, β, γ cells
 Exocrine – pancreatic juice
 It is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. The endocrine part (called islets of langerhans) secretes hormones . The exocrine part secretes pancreatic juice



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