Tuesday, 7 April 2020

BLOOD-BLOOD CELLS - RBC - WBC

BLOOD

 Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
 It is 6.8 litresin man and 500ml less in woman.
 6-8% of body weight (pH7.4)

CONSTITUENTS
 Solid or cellular part called blood cells and fluid part called the blood plasma

BLOOD CELLS
1. Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)
 Also called Erythrocytes, disc-shaped (for increased surface area), no nucleus contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its red color.
 Average man: Amount of Haemoglobin is 14- 15.6gm/100cc of blood (11 – 14 in woman)
 RBC are produced in spleen and liver in foetus and in bone marrow after birth @ 1.2 million/sec
 Life of RBC is 120 days after which they are broken down in spleen or liver. Product of breakdown of haemoglobin is a pigment (yellow colour), called bilirubin which normally disposed off through bile whereas haem transferred to red bone marrow. Retention of bilirubin leads to jaundices.
 More: Polycythemia. Less : Anaemia

2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)
 Also called Leucocytes rounded, with a nucleus, far less numerous than RBCs (1:400 - 500) (5,000-10,000/cu mm), life 3-4 days, soldiers of body’s defence system.
 Are of 2 types: Granulocytes (Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils) and Agranulocytes (Monocytes: Lymphocytes)
 Basophils: Take up basic stains. Have an Sshaped nucleus. Secrete an anti-coagulant Heparih, which prevents clots within the blood vessels.
 Neutrophils: Stain equally well with both acidic and basic dyes. Most numerous of the WBCs (65-70%). Defence.
 Monocytes: Largest of all.
 Lymphocytes: 25% of the WBC. Takes part in antigen and antibody formation.

3. Platelets
 Also called Thrombocytes, formed in bone marrow, about 2,50,000/cu mm of blood life 3-7days, sets off blood clotting

PLASMA (65%)
 Watery part of blood, clear, yellow fluid. Contains about 90% water, proteins and orgains salts.
 Plasma contains 7% proteins which include Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen.
 Plasma transports nutrients from the small intestine to the body tissues, and return the waster material to the kidneys, where it is filtred out.
 Regulates pH of blood.

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