Saturday, 4 January 2020

IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY UNIT II

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY
IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY

UNIT II
1.      Rodney Porter proposed the basic structure of immunoglobulin 
2.      Antibodies  are glycoproteins
3.      Antibodies are Y shaped molecule
4.      Antibodies is made of 4 polypeptide chains
5.      Antibodies has two types of light chains – kappa (κ) and lamba (λ).
6.      The 4 chains are interconnected by interchain disulphide bonds. 
7.      The 2 heavy chains are linked by 1 – 13 interchain disulphide bonds
8.      Ig consists of 2 regions namely variable region (V region) and a constant region (C region)
9.      In the constant region of Ig, the amino acid sequence remain constant.
10.  In the variable region of Ig, the amino acid sequence shows variability.
11.  The light chain of Ig, has 2 domains called as VL region and CL region
12.  The heavy chain of Ig, n has 4 domains – VH region, and 3 CH regions.
13.  IgG, the most abundant class in serum, constitutes about 80% of the total serum immunoglobulin. 
14.  The IgG molecule consists of two γ heavy chains and two K or two λlight chains.
15.  IgM accounts for 5%–10% of the total serum immunoglobulin
16.  IgA constitutes only 10%–15% of the total immunoglobulin in serum
17.  IgE antibodies mediate the immediate hypersensitivity reactions
18.  The presence of a serum component responsible for allergic reactions was first demonstrated in 1921 by K. Prausnitz and H. Kustner
19.  Actual identification of IgE was accomplished by K. and T. Ishizaka in 1966.
20.  The IgD, has a serum concentration of 30 µg/ml of serum.
21.  The interactions between antigens and antibodies are known as antigen–antibody reactions.
22.  The precipitates formed by antibodies are known as precipitins.
23.  Immunodiffusion tests are performed in a gelled agar medium.
24.  Agglutination is the process of linking together of antigens by antibodies and formation of visible aggregates
25.  Haemagglutination is the phenomenon of clumping of RBCs.
26.  A group of 20 or more serum protein is collectively known as complement.
27.  Schick test measures the level of immune system of a person to the infection of diphtheria.
28.  The antibody that is making the antigen susceptible for phagocytosis is known as "opsonin".
29.  The complement system was first found by Buchner in 1983.
30.  George Kohler and Cesar Milstein (Nobel Prize, 1984) achieved large scale production of MAbs




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