Saturday, 4 January 2020

IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I


DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY
IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT I
1.      The cells and molecules responsible for immunity are called immune system
2.      The cells and molecules efforts in regards to any etiological agent are called immune responses.
3.      Small pox was the first disease that was eradicated worldwide by vaccination
4.      Sebum (sweat) is a protective acid film over the skin surface that inhibits growth of many microbes
5.      The multilobed nucleus cells they are normally called polymorphonuclear leucocytes
6.      Monocytes are the largest of all types of leucocytes
7.      Monocytes have clear cytoplasm.
8.      Monocytes constitute about 2-10% of the blood leucocytes.
9.      Neutrophils constitute about 40% to 75% of the blood leucocytes in humans.
10.  Macrophages residence in particular tissues becoming fixed macrophages
11.  Macrophages remain motile and are called wandering macrophages.
12.  NK cells constitute 5%-10% of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in humans.
13.  The function of NK cells is apoptosis which means natural cell death
14.  NK cells produce chemical called as perforins
15.  Complement was first named by Ehrlich
16.  Jules Bordet is the discoverer of complement.
17.  Inflammation helps restore tissue homeostasis
18.  The memory cells are otherwise called as Primed cells.
19.  The process of production of cells of immune system in the bone marrow is called haematopoiesis.
20.  TH cells are most numerous of the T cells.
21.  The cytotoxic T cell secretes hole-forming proteins, called perforins
22.  TS cells are capable of suppressing the functions of cytotoxic and helper T cells.
23.  BCG vaccine are live bacterial vaccine for tuberculosis
24.  IgG antibodies can cross placental barrier to reach the foetus.
25.  Human colostrum (mother’s first milk) is rich in IgA antibodies.
26.  B lymphocyte are matured in bone marrow
27.  The macrophages produce a group of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides, commonly known as defensins
28.  The neutrophil has a multilobed nucleus and a granulated cytoplasm that stains with both acid and basic dyes
29.  The eosinophil has a bilobed nucleus and a granulated cytoplasm that stains with the acid dye eosin red
30.  The basophil has a lobed nucleus and heavily granulated cytoplasm that stains with the basic dye methylene blue
31.  Neutrophils also employ both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent pathways
32.  Basophils are nonphagocytic granulocytes
33.  Immunity is also called disease resistance
34.  The thymus and bone marrow are the primary (or central) lymphoid organs
35.  The lymph nodes, spleen, MALT are the secondary (or peripheral) lymphoid organs
36.  The thymus is the site of T-cell development and maturation
37.  Molecules that stimulate immune responses are called Immunogens.
38.  Epitope is immunologically active regions of an immunogen (or antigen)
39.  Autoantigens are a person’s own self antigens
40.  Alloantigens are antigens found in different members of the same species
41.  Heterophile antigens are identical antigens found in the cells of different species
42.  Adjuvants are substances that are non-immunogenic alone but enhance the immunogenicity of any added immunogen.


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